Resemblances between English and Polish

Writing and reading Polish.

  1. The Polish alphabet, continued here.
  2. Polish national characters.
  3. Punctuation marks.
  4. How to read Polish sounds : a, , b, bi, c, ch, chi, ci, cz, , d, dz, dzi, d, d, e, , f, fi, g, gi, h, hi, i, j, k, ki, l, , m, mi, n, ni, , o, , p, pi, r, rz, s, si, sz, , t, u, w, wi, y, z, zi, , .
  5. Polish fricatives.
  6. Stress.
  7. Softness.
  8. Using and reading of the letter i.
  9. Using and reading of the letter u.
  10. Group s.
  11. Final .
  12. Voicings and devoicings:
    1. Final devoicing.
    2. Devoicing before a voiceless.
    3. Devoicing of w after a voiceless.
    4. Devoicing of rz after a voiceless.
    5. Voicing before a voiced.
  13. Groups u, u, , .
  14. Groups with [j] spelt i: [bj], [czj], [dj], [dj], [fj], [gj], [hj], [kj], [lj], [mj], [j], [pj], [rj], [szj], [tj], [wj], [j] (spelt bi, czi, di, di, fi, gi, hi (chi), ki, li, mi, ni, pi, ri, szi, ti, wi, i).
  15. Groups czcz, drz, dsz, dd, trz, d.
  16. Consonantal assimilations.
  17. Assimilations of nasal consonants.
  18. Two vowels side–by–side.
  19. Spelling equivalents with other languages.


  1. Plural of substantives: basics (see also here).
  2. Plural of substantives with stems ending in -k, -g.
  3. Plural of substantives with stems ending in -j, -l.
  4. Plural of substantives with stems ending in -, -d, -, -, -.
  5. Plural of substantives of the type paw.
  6. Plural of substantives with stems ending in -c, -dz.
  7. Plural of substantives with stems ending in -cz, -d, -rz, -sz, -.
  8. Plural of masculine-personal substantives (-owie).
  9. Plural of masculine-personal substantives (-i/-y).
  10. Plural of neuter substantives.
  11. Plural of neuter substantives in -.
  12. Plural of feminine substantives ending with a consonant.
  13. Irregular plural of substantives : also continuation.
  14. Plural of substantives – repetition.
  15. Substantives without singular.
  16. Adjectives: gender; also continued here and here.
  17. Numerals: basics.
  18. Numerals: 1.
  19. Numerals: 2, 3, 4.
  20. Names of months, continued here.
  21. Seasons.
  22. Days of the week.
  23. Cases.
  24. Genitive singular of substantives.
  25. Genitive singular of adjectives.
  26. Genitive singular of pronouns.


  1. Imperfective and perfective verbs.
  2. 3rd of the Present Tense.
  3. 2nd of the Present Tense.
  4. The Future Tense.
  5. The Past Tense.
  6. The Present Tense.


  1. The suffix -k.

Sound changes in inflexion and word-formation.

  1. : o: see here, here and here.
  2. : : see here.
  3. Fleeting e: see here, here, here and here.
  4. Fleeting o: see here and here.


  1. Introducing oneself.
  2. Introducing oneself (2nd way).
  3. Greetings.