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Warning: if you see boxes instead of the symbols: f́, ȯ, ȵ, ɛ, t͇, y̨, ɨ̃, ʦ̑, please acquaint yourself with the content of this page. In order to see all symbols used here, you must have had installed Code2000, Code2001, Code2002 or TITUS Cyberbit Basic fonts. Other Unicode fonts, including Arial Unicode and Lucida Sans Unicode, don’t contain all necessary glyphs.
The international transcription system IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) has been created on the basis of phonetics and phonology of West-European languages, and it is not adapted satisfactorily to Polish. For example, the IPA transcription doesn’t contain separate signs for affricates which are treated as groups put together from two consonants, on no evidence. The Polish language, like other Slavic languages, distinguishes e.g. the cluster [ts] from the affricate [ʦ]. As you can see, the difference in spelling is minimal, which can lead to misunderstandings. Using the writing with the arch [ʦ̑] instead of the composite sign [ʦ] precludes such misunderstandings but it is inconvenient for publishing again. Moreover both users of Slavic languages and Slavists have consciousness that affricates are single sounds rather than combinations of sounds as the IPA suggests. In regard to the Polish language, it has been an additional issue until recently (and it is still in practice) that IPA does not contain symbols for some sounds existing in the Polish phonetics, which is discussed below.
From the consideration discussed above, a special transcriptional system, called the Slavistic alphabet, is used in Slavistics most frequently. A somewhat modified version of it is also applied on later pages of this website.
In the following table both systems are set together. The applying of some symbols is explained with detailed remarks. The abbreviation AS means alfabet slawistyczny (the Slavistic alphabet).
In both systems of the transcription, writing in slash brackets /t/ means phonological transcription while writing in square brackets [t] – phonetic transcription.
|a||a||/mama/||/mama/||mama||The symbol /a/ in AS means a low central vowel. IPA doesn’t contain a symbol for such a vowel, the symbol /a/ for the front vowel is applied instead.|
|e||ɛ||/eva/||/ɛva/||Ewa||The symbols /e/, /o/ are simpler; compound [ė], [ȯ] (i.e. IPA [e], [o]) mean their positional variants (allophones).|
|y||ɨ||/byæ/||/bɨʨ̑/||byæ||The symbol /y/ is consistent with spelling.|
|±||ã||/¹±sa/||/ʃãsa/||szansa||So called nasal vowels are nasal diphthongs in the Polish language in fact, however in older works you can meet symbols given here. See also remark 1. In AS the symbols /ã ẽ ĩ/ are also in use.|
|i̯||j||/moi̯e/||/mɔjɛ/||moje||See remark 2.|
|u̯||w||/u̯oŋka/||/wɔŋka/||³±ka||See remarks 2 and 3.|
|³||ɫ||/³oŋka/||/ɫɔŋka/||³±ka||Dental sonorant. See remark 3.|
|r||r||/rura/||/rura/||rura||See remark 4.|
|ḿ||mʲ||/ḿe¹ek/||/mʲɛʃɛk/||mieszek||See remark 5.|
|ñ||ȵ||/koñ/||/kɔȵ/||koñ||Also IPA /ɲ/, see remark 6.|
|ṕ||pʲ||/ṕesek/||/pʲɛsɛk/||piesek||See remark 5.|
|t||t||/tata/||/tata/||tata||See remark 7.|
|è||ʧ̑||/èarny/||/ʧ̑arnɨ/||czarny||See remark 8.|
|ḱ||c||/ḱedy/||/cɛdɨ/||kiedy||See remark 9.|
|χ́||ç||/χ́iǵena/||/çiɟɛna/||higiena||See remarks 3 and 9.|
|χ||x||/χak/||/xak/||hak||See remark 3.|
|ä||æ||[i̯äi̯ko]||[jæjkɔ]||jajko||Alophones of the phonemes /a e o u/ between soft consonants.|
|u̯̦||w̥||[umysu̯̦]||[umɨsw̥]||umys³||Voiceless allophone of /u̯/.|
|³̦||ɫ̥||[umys³̦]||[umɨsɫ̥]||umys³||Voiceless allophone of /³/.|
|l̦||l̥||[my¶l̦]||[mɨɕl̥]||my¶l||Voiceless allophone of /l/.|
|l′||ʎ||[l′ista]||[ʎista]||lista||Allophone of /l/, see remark 6.|
|r̦||r̥||[v́atr̦]||[vʲatr̥]||wiatr||Voiceless allophone of /r/.|
|r′||rʲ||[baler′ina]||[balɛrʲina]||balerina||Allophone of /r/.|
|m̦||m̥||[ṕism̦]||[pʲism̥]||pism||Voiceless allophone of /m/.|
|ḿ||mʲ||[ḿi¶ek]||[mʲiɕɛk]||misiek||See remark 5.|
|n̦||n̥||[ṕosn̦ka]||[pʲɔsn̥ka]||piosnka||Voiceless allophone of /n/.|
|ṇ||n͇||[soṇèek]||[sɔn͇ʧ̑ɛk]||s±czek||See remark 7.|
|ñ̦||ȵ̥||[ṕe¶ñ̦]||[pʲɛɕȵ̥]||pie¶ñ||Also IPA [ɲ̊]. Allophone of /ñ/.|
|į̯||j̃||[paį̯sḱi]||[paj̃sci]||pañski||Allophone of /ñ/. AS also [ĩ̯].|
|ŋ́||ŋʲ||[veŋ́ǵel]||[vɛŋʲɟɛl]||wêgiel||Allophone of /ŋ/ before /ḱ ǵ/.|
|ų̯||w̃||[voų̯sḱi]||[vɔw̃sci]||w±ski||Also AS [ũ̯], IPA [ɰ̃]. See rem. 1.|
|ṕ||pʲ||[ṕiæ]||[pʲiʨ̑]||piæ||See remark 5.|
|ṭ||t͇||[ṭ¹y]||[t͇ʃɨ]||trzy||See remark 7.|
|t′||tʲ||[t′ik]||[tʲik]||tik||See remark 10.|
|h̦||h||[druh̦]||[druh]||druh||See remark 3.|
1. In newer works the following symbols are in use: AS /aŋ eŋ oŋ iŋ yŋ uŋ/, IPA /aŋ ɛŋ ɔŋ iŋ ɨŋ uŋ/. The consonant /ŋ/ occurs here in the form of the allophone written as [w̃] or [ɰ̃].
2. Instead of the symbols /i̯ u̯/ used by Slavists as a rule, the simpler IPA symbols /j w/ are in use on this website.
3. A small number of Poles still pronounces the velarized dental /³/ instead of /w/ (/u̯/), in the place of the letter ³. In these persons’ speech the phoneme /w/ occurs in such words like auto /awto/, weekend /wikent/. However the majority of Poles pronounces one phoneme /w/ in the place of both /w/ and /³/.
Similarly, a number of Poles pronounces the letter h (in spelling) as the laryngeal voiced consonant /ɦ/. This is so called borderland pronunciation. The conviction that it is the velar voiced /γ/ is incorrect or refers to some users of the Polish language only. However, in pronunciation of the majority of Poles /ɦ/ and /x/ (ch in spelling) are pronounced identically as /x/.
Usually in the Slavistic alphabet the sign /χ/is used for marking the voiceless velar spirant, but some authors use /x/ like in IPA (and such a convention is also accepted on this website). According to literature, its voiced equivalent /γ/ is supposed to have the status of the phoneme in the borderland pronunciation. For the majority of Poles [γ] is an allophone of the phoneme /x/ which occurs before a voiced consonant, e.g. in the word klechda [kleγda].
As mentioned above, the persons with the borderland pronunciation probably use the laryngeal /ɦ/ rather than velar /γ/. In such a pronunciation also [γ] probably occurs as an allophone of the phoneme /x/ (in the word klechda), as well as [h] as the allophone of the phoneme /ɦ/ before a voiceless and in the absolute final position (e.g. in the word Boh [boh]). In general, in the Slavistic alphabet the symbol /h/ is applied for marking the voiced laryngeal /h/, however the IPA symbol /ɦ/ is used sometimes (also on this website).
According to literature, the phoneme /γ́/ is supposed to occur in the borderland pronunciation, e.g. in the words higiena or hieroglif. In fact, this phoneme may be the palatalized laryngeal /ɦ′/.
The phoneme /x́/ (also /γ́/ or /ɦ′/ in the borderland pronunciation) has an uncertain status. The sound [x́] occurs before /i/ or /j/, e.g. chimera [x́imera], anarchia [anarx́ja], historia [x́istorja], hiena [x́jena]. But, there exist words in which [j] can be reduced, e.g. psychiatra [psyx́atra], hieroglif [x́eroglif], and thanks to this [x́] obtains the status of the phoneme.
4. In the Polish language apart from positional variants also optional variants exist. The uvular [ʀ] is an optional variant of the alveolar phoneme /r/. It means some persons pronounce [ʀ] instead of [r] and this does not disturb the language communication (even if such a pronunciation is considered incorrect and therefore is not taken into consideration in the table).
5. There exist 2 interpretations of soft labial consonants. According to 1st interpretation these are separate phonemes, according to the other one they are only allophones of suitable hard consonants which occur before /i/, whereas a sequence of two phonemes corresponds to them in another environment. The best idea is to illustrate this with some examples:
|Spelling||The first interpretation||The second interpretation|
As you can see from the table, the IPA transcription cannot mark the difference between e.g. the phoneme /ḿ/ (1st interpretation), and the sequence of phonemes /mi̯/ (2nd interpretation).
On this website the writings of the type /m′e¹ek/ is in use. It is a simplified version of the spelling /mi̯e¹ek/.
6. The palatalized allophone [å] of the phoneme /l/ and the phoneme /ñ/ differ from the standard palatal sounds marked in IPA with [ʎ] and /ɲ/. Which is more, /ñ/ has the same place of the articulation as /æ ʒ́ ¶ ¼/, i.e. it is an alveolar-palatal consonant. For the nasal alveolar-palatal sonorant, the newest Unicode version offers the sign /ȵ/ (code 565 or U+0235), applied e.g. for description of Chinese dialects for a long time.
The allophone [l′], which should be marked with [lʲ] in IPA transcription, occurs before /i/. It is usually assumed to occur before /j/ (/i̯/) as well, but it does not seem to be true. Occurring of this sound on the border of morphemes or words is even more questionable.
7. The basic variations of Polish /t d c ʒ s z n/ have rather dental than alveolar articulation. On the second hand, the standard set of IPA symbols, leaned on English patterns and international only from its name, comprises alveolar sounds /t d ʦ̑ ʣ̑ s z n/. However, Polish alveolar sounds are merely a special case of phonemes which are dental in principle. In the Slavistic alphabet, symbols of alveolar allophones, which occur only in a special phonetic environment, are combined of the basic symbol of the phoneme and the diacritic in the form of the dot under the letter, meaning the alveolar articulation. IPA didn’t contain a sign for alveolar articulation originally. Only later a symbol for alveolar articulation was introduced, in the form of the equals sign (of two horizontal lines) under the sign of the phoneme (the sign has the code U+0347 which means 839).
The alveolar allophones [ṭ ḍ] are most often replaced by the affricates [è ǯ], e.g. trzeba [ṭ¹eba è¹eba].
8. The Polish alveolar consonants /è ǯ ¹ ¾/ are so considerably different from English postalveolar (palatoalveolar) sounds marked /ʧ̑ ʤ̑ ʃ ʒ/ in IPA that even IPA creators prefer using the nonstandard markings /ʦ̣̑ ʣ̣̑ ṣ ẓ/ (see here) for the Polish consonants. Others use the symbols /t͡¹ d͡¾ ¹ ¾/ even if they use IPA basically.
9. A palatal consonant in the Polish language is /j/. Articulation of the consonants /ḱ ǵ χ́ γ́/ should be determined as prevelar. Therefore using IPA symbols /c ɟ ç ʝ/ in order to mark them is confusing, /k̟ g̟ x̟ γ̟/ should be used instead. 10. The softened allophones [t′ d′ c′ ʒ′ s′ z′ è′ ǯ′ ¹′ ¾′ r′] occur in words of foreign origin before /i/. They are usually assumed to occur before /j/ (/i̯/) but it does not seem to be true. Occurring of these sounds on the border of morphemes or words is even more questionable. Good examples of [ʒ′] are absent, the word Godzilla is pronounced [goʒ́illa] more frequently.
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