A Grammar of the Polish Language

Part three

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The phonetics of the Polish language, part 2

Consonants – general remarks

First of all it is useful to divide the Polish consonants into plain ones and palatalized ones (pronounced with some additional raising of the dorsal part of the tongue towards the palate like when pronouncing the i). Many linguists use here the terms “hard” and “soft”, what can be deceiving as the same terms are used for “stops” and “spirants” respectively in the Anglo-Saxon countries. To understand morphological phenomena you should also know that that division took place quite somewhere else in the Old Polish language (on a certain optionally separated stage of the evolution of the language). We could divide all the consonants up into 4 groups:

  1. Ordinary, non-palatalized now or in the past. These are b, ch, d, f, g, h, k, ł, m, n, p, r, s, t, w, z.
  2. Palatalized in the past, non-palatalized now. These are c, cz, dz, dż, l, rz, sz, ż.
  3. Palatalized now, non-palatalized in Old Polish. These are gi, ki as well as the varieties of the ch, h standing before the i.
  4. Palatalized now as well as in the past. These are bi, ci/ć, dzi/dź, fi, j, mi, ni/ń, pi, si/ś, wi, zi/ź.

The alternations of the consonants non-palatalized – palatalized are of great importance in the morphology. We have 3 cases here:

  1. Both elements of the pair have not changed their features: b – bi, d – dzi/dź, f – fi, m – mi, n – ni/ń, p – pi, s – si/ś, t – ci/ć, w – wi, z – zi/ź.
  2. Both elements are “hard” today: ł – l, r – rz.
  3. The velars behave themselves particularly, because they have been submitted to different palatalizations several times; we can find here the following alternations:
    1. ch – sz, ch+i;
    2. g – ż, dz, gi;
    3. h – ż, dz;
    4. k – cz, c, ki.

More details on palatalization could be found here.


Another division lets us distinguish sonorants (together with semivowels) and proper consonants (obstruents), and voiceless and voiced consonants among the last ones. Sonorants are marked with j, l, ł, m, n, ń, r, sometimes with i, u; the “ogonek” (“tail”) – the second element of the diphthongs ą, ę also belongs to this class. From the morphological view the rz (not ż!) and w are close to sonorants because of their origin. Sonorants are usually pronounced as voiced with exception when between voiceless consonants (piosnka, kosmki, krtań), word-initially before a voiceless (rtęć, mknąć) or word-finally after a consonant, especially voiceless (wiatr, myśl, piekł). Even then they become voiceless only in fast speech however.

The Polish sonorants never make a separate syllable as opposed to Czech or English (e.g. rythm). When not adjoining any vowels they enter into the composition of hardly-pronounceable for a foreigner clusters of a number of consonants, e.g. Strwiąż, Brda, lśnić, łza, rytm, rdza (all these words are monosyllabic). The j is not allowed to occur in such a position at all, whereas the ł and u must be differentiated: spiekł – spieku, łzy – uzysk (the final ł after a consonant can be even omitted in fast speech, but not everyone says it is correct).

Here are detailed remarks:


Voiceless consonants, as well as in other Slavic languages, are pronounced without vibration of the vocal cords, they are longer than voiced ones, but practically they are not pronounced with more force, in this connexion they have no aspitation either. The distinction between the Polish t and d is in something else than between the English or German t and d, which differ first of all in force (in Germanic languages the t is stronger than the d and aspirated as a rule).

The principle of assimilation of sounds which is very widespread in Polish introduces a number of restrictions in liberty of occurrence of the voiceless ones and the voiced ones (these limitations do not concern to sonorants):

  1. A voiced consonant can occur before a vowel (odejść), a sonorant (odłożyć) or another voiced consonant (odbić, odwaga, Afganistan [awgańistan]).
  2. Before a voiceless consonant and in the absolutely final position (before the pause and in the end of the sentence) only a voiceless consonant may occur (odkładać [otkładać]; hence the three words buk, bóg, Bug are pronounced identically – at the end of a pronouncement like [buk]).
  3. A voiceless consonant can occur before a vowel (sen), a sonorant (słodki), another voiceless consonant (spać, walizka [waliska]), in the absolutely final position (kasz, karz, każ, all pronounced here as [kasz]), as well as before the rz, w, which become voiceless (these sounds originate from sonorants, hence their particular behaviour: trzeba [tszeba], twój [tfuj]).
  4. Before a voiced consonant (except the rz, w) only a voiced consonant may occur (zadbać, także [tagże]).

The spelling denotes only assimilation of a rare type as well as occurring within variant forms of morphemes, e.g. dech ‘breath’ – tch-u ‘of breath’, deszcz ‘rain’ – dżdż-ownica ‘earthworm’, Sącz ‘name of a town’ – sądecki ‘of/from Sącz’, while it omits typical assimilations at the point of morpheme junction (in the internal sandhi), e.g. buzia [buźa] – buźka [buśka], wsuwać [fsuwać] – wsuwka [fsufka], kosić [kośić] – kośba [koźba].

In the course of speech assimilations at the point of word junction occur as well (the external sandhi, the liaison), as a rule in accordance with the above-mentioned principles. In this case however the initial rz, w do not become voiced, and on the contrary, like other voiced consonants they cause voicing the final consonant of the preceding word, e.g. podnieś rzeczy [podńeź żeczy], brat wyjechał [brad wyjechał]. When a word starts with a vowel or a sonorant and the preceding word ends in an obstruent (regardless of its spelling: brat ojca, brzeg jeziora), the obstruent is pronounced depending of the region as voiceless (Warszawa – Warsaw: [brat ojca, bżek jeźora]) or as voiced (Poznań, Kraków – Cracow: [brad ojca, bżeg jeźora]). Both styles of the liaison are considered to be correct. The initial vowel is preceded by the glottal (laryngeal) stop. A preposition leaves its final consonant voiced before a vowel in the literary language (the initial laryngeal stop may be very weak or absent in this case): pod okiem.

Detailed remarks on the pronunciation of consonants:

    1. o`kolica, `reguła, `ryzyko, `opera, `czterysta, `osiemset and some others CAN be proparoxytona (stressed on the third syllable from the end), but paroxytonesis (stressing the penultimate) here is normal and rather often;
    2. `osiemkroć, w `ogóle, `muzyka, mate`matyka, `technika, `fizyka, `Korsyka etc. are more often proparoxytona, but you can stress the penultimate as well (it sounds more colloquial: `muzyka can mean ‘classical music’, mu`zyka can mean ‘pop music’ – however it is not a strict rule);
    3. there is a number of oxytona (stressing the last syllable), too, for example composites in the forms with the zero-ending – in nominative singular: eks`mąż, wice`mistrz, and in genitive plural: tych eks`żon, abbreviations PeKa`eS (for Państwowa Komunikacja Samochodowa), few others aku`rat (pronounced with expression, normally a`kurat);
    4. verbs in 1st and 2nd person of plural of the past tense and in the conditional are stressed as if the particle by and personal endings were separate words: `nieśliśmy, `nieślibyśmy, pi`saliśmy, pi`salibyśmy, also `byleby; this rule does not concern the other forms of the past tense: akcento`wałem, akcento`wałam, but akcen`towałbym, akcento`wałabym;
    5. a complex of a preposition with the following personal pronoun builds the whole, stressed as if it was one word: na`de mną, `bez niej;
    6. the negative particle nie makes the whole with the following verb, e.g. `nie ma, `nie rób `tego.

    If you can understand Polish, you can compare my observations with the orthoepic norm given in Polish publications – go here.

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